Think! – It’s All In The Mindset

In this follow up to my earlier post on mindsets, Carol Goodey reviews Mindset: How You Can Fulfil Your Potential by Carol Dweck. In my original piece, I reflected on an infographic which described an open vs a closed mindset, and laid out some ideas for how a teacher could encourage their students to adopt the former, with the aim of helping them reach their language learning objectives. Now Carol reviews the book that inspired the image, and gives us a more detailed look at how it can affect us as educators.

mindset book cover

 

In James’s earlier post, he shared a graphic of the two mindsets identified by Stanford University psychologist Carol S. Dweck Ph.D in her research. The graphic is a succinct summary of the two sets of beliefs about learning. I’ll quickly reproduce that information here before going on to highlight some implications for learning from the rest of Dweck’s recent book: Mindset: How You Can Fulfil Your Potential – a book that I had coincidently started to read before James published his post. This is not a weighty, academic book, but the ideas in it are based on years of academic research and it serves as a good introduction to these.

So, looking at the graphic, we find out that people with a fixed mindset believe that intelligence is static. This belief leads to a desire to look smart and therefore a tendency to:  avoid challenges; give up easily; see effort as fruitless or worse; ignore useful negative feedback; and, feel threatened by the success of others.  By acting on the belief that our qualities are fixed, people are less likely to reach their full potential.

Opposite this, we see that the belief that intelligence can be developed underlies the growth mindset and leads to a desire to learn. There is, therefore, the tendency to: embrace challenges; persist in the face of setbacks; see effort as the path to mastery; learn from criticism; and, find lessons and inspiration in the success of others.  Because of these tendencies, people are more likely to achieve higher levels of success.

Dweck found that very young children already displayed beliefs related to one mindset or another. In one study, four-year-olds were offered a choice between redoing an easy jigsaw puzzle and trying a harder one. Some chose to play it safe and not risk exposing themselves to failure. Smart kids “don’t do mistakes” they said. The other children couldn’t understand why they wouldn’t try to do the harder one. Dweck found that “children with the fixed mindset want to make sure they succeed. Smart people should always succeed. But for children with the growth mindset, success is about stretching themselves. It’s about becoming smarter.” (Dweck 2012 Ch.2)

From an early age, we are continuously interpreting and making sense of the world around us, attaching meaning to what people say and do, and forming beliefs about our and other’s abilities. These beliefs can have a huge impact on our actions and the lives we choose to lead.  Mindsets, according to Dweck, are an important part of our personalities, but just as intelligence is not set in stone, neither are our mindsets. We can change our mindset, even if temporarily. So, assuming that the growth mindset is most conducive to learning, what can we, as educators, say and do to influence our learners.

Tell them about the growth mindset

As James suggested in his post, we can share what we know about the mindsets. Show them the graphic. Dweck claims that “just by knowing about the two mindsets you can start thinking and reacting in different ways.”  Even if someone generally has a fixed mindset, this doesn’t mean that they will always be in that mindset. Dweck found in her studies that they were able to put people into a growth mindset. “We tell them that an ability can be learned and that the task will give them a chance to do that.” (Dweck 2012 Ch.2) So, we can let people know about the mindset, and we can also highlight how we expect activities to help them learn and develop. (We can then ask them to reflect on whether they think we’re right!)

Tell them how learning can affect the brain

Dweck and her colleagues developed a series of workshops to teach students about the growth mindset. In it, students find out how the brain develops when people practise and learn new things.

“When you learn new things, these tiny connections in the brain actually multiply and get stronger. The more that you challenge your mind to learn, the more your brain cells grow. Then, things that you once found very hard or even impossible—like speaking a foreign language or doing algebra—seem to become easy. The result is a stronger, smarter brain.” (Dweck 2012 Ch.8)

On learning about the brain in their first workshop, one disengaged student asked emotionally “You mean I don’t have to be dumb?” Following the workshop, his teacher reported that he was putting a lot of effort into his homework, where before he didn’t submit any, and as a result of this increased effort improved his grades considerably.

It may be important to note here that growth-minded people don’t believe that anyone can become anything, but that a person’s true potential is unknown and unknowable.

Help them identify strengths and weaknesses

Dweck quotes Howard Gardner who concluded in his book Extraordinary Minds that very successful people have “a special talent for identifying their own strengths and weaknesses.” This, Dweck remarks, is a talent that people with the growth mindset have.

We can help people identify what they need to learn, and we can help them to be realistic about what they can’t do… yet! Some people with a fixed mindset may think they are not capable of some things but others may also have inflated ideas of their abilities, which will also affect their learning.

We also need to encourage people to recognise what they can do and what they have learned either with you or in other (perhaps less formal) contexts.

Value effort and learning

We all want to help our learners to feel good about themselves but we need to be careful how we do this. From her studies, it became very clear to Dweck that “praising children’s intelligence harms their motivation and it harms their performance.”  When we tell someone they’re smart because they did the work so quickly, we’re communicating that if they don’t work quickly they’re not smart. If we tell someone that they’re brilliant because they got an A without studying, we’re telling them that they’re not brilliant if they need to study.

We want our learners to work, to learn and to continue to develop, so it makes sense to value learning and effort rather than what they can already do with little work.

Help them find the right strategies

If someone is finding learning difficult, we need to help them find ways that work for them. Watch them as they tackle a piece of work.  Ask them what they’re thinking and how they feel. Let them try different ways of approaching an activity. Make suggestions. Tell them that there’s not just one way to learn. Scaffold.  Highlight when they accomplish something they originally didn’t think they could. Encourage them to reflect. Increase the challenge. Help them see that they can learn! A lovely example of this can be found on Vicky Loras’s blog.

Make a vivid, concrete plan

Many of us will have had discussions with learners about work they can do independently. They usually think it is a good idea. They will agree to do it. But they don’t always manage to do it as much as they or we’d like. Dweck suggests that what is needed, and what works, is making a vivid concrete plan. She gives as an example, “On Wednesday morning, right after I get up and brush my teeth, I’ll sit at my desk and start writing my report.”

It’s the simple things that make a difference – and I do like to keep things simple! Sometimes we just need to highlight what appears to be common sense in case we take them for granted, or assume that everyone thinks or believes like we do.

What’s important to me is the idea that a person’s potential is unknown. We can’t write people off as not being good language learners, or tell them that science is not their thing.  It may well be that they are finding it difficult right now, but there are different ways to learn, different approaches and strategies to try, and we should help them to explore these different ways. We can also learn from them if we don’t impose our way of learning, and are open to finding out what works for them.

We don’t want to be that teacher who tells a future Nobel prize winner that the idea of becoming a scientist is ridiculous because “he will insist on doing his work in his own way.”

 

References:

Dweck, C. (2012). Mindset: How You Can Fulfil Your Potential. Kindle Edition.

Gardner, H. (1997). Extraordinary Minds. New York: Basic Books.

Carol Goodey is currently an Adult Literacies & ESOL Worker in Community Learning and Development with a local authority in Scotland. She’s also taught general English & EAP to students coming to study at university in Scotland, and does some tutor training. She has an MSc in TESOL and really enjoy keeping up with what’s going on in the ELT/ESOL world, via Twitter (@cgoodey), forums and blogs and, whenever she gets the chance, talks and conferences. You can read her blog here.

Think! – Two Mindsets

This post was previously published on a now defunct blog called Think! Language And Culture I used to write. I’ve dusted it off and republished it here for your reading pleasure.

If there’s an attitude that I want this series of Think! blog posts to encompass, it’s right here in this infographic:

Two Mindests

Taken from here. Originally published in Information Graphics by Sandra Rendgren (Taschen).

Or, and it’s something I’ve been trying is to do, is to choose the second option to push yourself down that right channel, the path of growth. I say push yourself because it’s not easy, it’s hard work and requires you to think outside of your comfort zone. I’m doing this because I know the reward is to reach a higher level of achievement, a greater sense of understanding of myself and the universe, and an increase in my self-confidence. As the image shows us, there are two ways to approach life and learning. You can adopt the approach on the left, the closed minded, “fixed mindset” that prevents us from growing and improving. Every challenge is seen as a threat and any excuse to disengage is taken.

I’m trying to choose the difficult path to progress rather than the easy path to atrophy. And that’s why these blog posts exist.

But as language teachers and learners, we can also see how these options can relate specifically to language learning. It is clear that those students who adopt a “growth mindset” have a far greater opportunity for success than those who don’t. In fact, I would go so far as to say that those who choose the left path will never learn a language as they might say they wish.

It’s at this point that I have to reflect on my own language learning and concede that I have often  chosen the path of least resistance. I’ve never been a particularly comfortable language student (you can read about my troubles here), and in part this is due to the fact that I’ve rarely had a good teacher who could even recognise my difficulties, let alone help me with them. Of course I accept that it is ultimately the students individual responsibility to facilitate their own learning, but as a language teacher I feel it is my responsibility to help them along as much as I can.

The position of a ‘fixed mindset’ is primarily going to be adopted because of fear. The student is frightened of looking stupid in front of the class or the teacher when they have an information gap, or realises that this part of language is something they have struggled with in the past and they don’t want to face it again, or some other reason that prevents learning. So the question I have to ask is how can I change this person’s mindset from fixed to growth?

The first thing that springs to mind is openness. There’s no reason why you couldn’t print off this infographic and use it as the source of a lesson. Get the students discussing their own fears, worries and hang ups. Turn those fears into positive objectives which together you can plan to tackle over the duration of the course.

Create challenges which are in line with their objectives. Ideally you want the students to be coming to you and saying “this is what I want to achieve and I want you to help me get there”. Don’t confuse their needs with your own perception of what their needs are. Doing some kind of needs analysis at the beginning of a course is a great way to do this.

And as well as making sure you recognise their achievements, give them the mechanism to recognise their own achievements. Together, create course checklists, make goals which you pin up on the wall and come back to regularly. Get them to tell you and each other when they have achieved something, instead of it always coming from the teacher. Make sure that appraisal of their progress is a consistent part of their course.

Make criticism an integral part of their studies, and most importantly, make most of it peer criticism. They will expect you as teacher to be the one who tells them how good or otherwise they are doing, but building peer feedback into their course right from the beginning is invaluable. They will need training and guidance, but once they have an understanding in how to give and receive criticism in the correct manner from each other they will begin to use it as a part of the improvement process.

Give them the opportunity to find realistic role models. Discuss their heroes and what they have learned from them. Make them explain these characteristics and get them to discuss how they will try and include their influence in their own lives. This discussion doesn’t have to be limited to language learning, but their lives in general and hopefully the effect of consciously thinking about their influence will trickle down into their language learning.

And finally, don’t be scared of taking yourself down that difficult path and do a little reflection yourself. Does part of their difficulty lie in the way your class is organised? Are your activities focused enough? Do you give them space and time to really achieve their objectives? Are you listening to them? The answers to these questions may be yes, but that doesn’t mean they shouldn’t be asked in the first place. It’s all part of having a growth mindset.

 

Punctuation Matters!

This post has been written in coordination with the latest episode of the TEFL Commute podcast, which I produce with Lindsay Clandfield and Shaun Wilden. You can listen to the episode on our website by clicking here.
Punctuation matters, so here are some fun ideas to get your students to be more careful when writing.

 

Occasionally I’ve had a student who doesn’t seem to realise that punctuation, capitalisation and spacing are actually things that really matter when writing. Spaces are deposited at random places. Commas are used in between what should definitely be two different sentences. Sometimes punctuation is omitted completely, and you’re left with a piece of writing that resembles a stream of consciousness that you have to try and unpack.  ‘English’ is continually written as ‘english’.

I tend to be quite strict with these things, even at a lower level (it’s good to get them out of these habits early, I think) so I talk about it with my students and point it out in their writing feedback.

There is a temptation to ignore these points which must be resisted, I think. It’s very easy to think that the priority must be the vocabulary and grammar, and while I would agree with that, it doesn’t have to come at the expense of form. If the students are writing in the first place, they need to understand that in a professional capacity, which is how most students will use their writing abilities in English, poor writing can create a lasting and damaging impression.

It’s not the most exciting subject, to be fair, but thanks to the Internet, there are a wealth of images you can use with your students to demonstrate the importance of punctuation.

puntuation matters 1

puntuation matters 2

puntuation matters 3

puntuation matters 4

puntuation matters 5

puntuation matters 6

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And a couple of spacing ‘fails’…

puntuation matters 8

puntuation matters 9
Hopefully using examples like these will make it very obvious to your students why punctuation matters!

All examples of punctuation errors come from here. The spacing errors come from here and here.

The End Of An Era

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If you’ve been reading this blog for a long time, or follow me on social media, you should be aware of my involvement in BELTA. BELTA is the Belgian language teachers association, which I co-founded in 2012 with Mieke Kenis and Guido Europeaantje, and have been president of since its inception.

I won’t tell you the full story of how BELTA started here, you can find out more on our website. Suffice it to say we started it from scratch and in four short years we have hosted 3 annual conferences with plenary speakers including Jeremy Harmer, Luke Meddings, Hugh Dellar and Philip Kerr, had nearly 30 webinars, two online conferences with TESL Toronto, published our journal the BELTA Bulletin, ran a very successful blog, and brought something new to the ELT scene in Belgium and internationally.

So why am I telling you about this now? Well, simply put, I’m no longer BELTA president. I’ve decided to resign as it’s time for a new stage in my professional life. There are things I need to do that I’m hoping will enable me to have more options professionally and it’s impossible for me to concentrate on these and dedicate myself to BELTA as I have in the last few years. It wasn’t an easy decision by any means, but I know it’s the right one.

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Kicking off the first BELTA Day in June 2013

So I writing this post for two reasons. Firstly, I want to say a heartfelt thank you to everyone who has been involved in BELTA since we started. To everyone who came to our events, online and off, to every conference and webinar speaker, to every volunteer, to every follower on Twitter and Facebook, every blog reader, and of course, every BELTA member, thank you.

But most of all I want to thank my fellow BELTA board members Mieke, Ellen, John, Vicky, Vedrana, Joris and Jurgen. It’s been an absolute joy and a privilege to work with you and an honour to be your president. I’m still grateful for the day when you decided that I should be president even though you knew I would be leaving the country in a few months. There are countless examples of fine judgement you have shown since we started, and hope that it one of them! BELTA is the thing I am most proud of in my professional life, and that’s all down to you, so I really can’t thank you enough.

The closest we ever got to a photo of the board in 2015 - stuffing leaflets into conference bags!

The closest we ever got to a photo of the board – stuffing leaflets into conference bags!

The first BELTA board, Jurgen, Ellen, Mieke and me.

The first BELTA board, Jurgen, Ellen, Mieke and me.

When we founded BELTA, we were all complete novices. None of us had any experience in running a teachers’ association and we had limited contacts in Belgium. That didn’t stop us. I had a mantra back then that I used to set the tone for how we conducted ourselves:

We have no money, no members and no experience, but we’re going to act like we have all three.

The idea of this was to establish that our amateurism wasn’t an excuse for poor, substandard work. We commissioned an easy to navigate and attractive looking website as early as we possibly could. We started our webinars very early on and only invited speakers who we knew would be excellent. We have the same high standards for our conference speakers, and blog and journal writers. Our newsletters, posters and social media accounts look good and are maintained regularly. Our sponsors are extremely well looked after and listened to, as our members.

Introducing Hugh Dellar in 2015

Introducing Hugh Dellar in 2015

The lesson I have learnt is that you have to demand a lot of yourself when you offer a service. Of course, if you’re a volunteer then you will probably have less time than you would like, but that’s not excuse for something second rate. And whatever service you offer, paid or unpaid, you can’t expect it to be rewarding and fulfilling unless you pour a lot into it. It’s as true of teaching as it is of volunteering.

The effect of this approach is huge. I hope from reading this you can see the effect BELTA has had on me. If you wish to have a experience like this in your life, the only way is to go for it, to go all in, demand a lot from yourself, expect the same from others while respecting their skills, autonomy and commitments, and enjoy the process of collaboration. If you do, what you are able to achieve will surprise you and the rewards are huge.

BELTA will go on, of course, in the more than capable hands of the new president, John Arnold, and I’ll still be involved, whenever they need me, in an scaled back, advisory position. I can’t wait to see what the future holds for them.

Advice For Teaching Teens

A couple of weeks ago, I posted this on Facebook:

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I got some great advice from my friends, so I thought I’d share some of my favourites with you here.

Thom Jones Keep them on their toes, don’t worry if they think you’re a bit of a nutter.

Graeme Hodgson Expect to deviate from your lesson plan and just enjoy those “teachable moments” of emergent language!

Fiona Mauchline Listen like you’ve never listened before. To anyone. Listen, learn, and show them you have.

Maria P. Vlachopoulou Try to keep up with the latest trends, gadgets, bands, songs etc and prepare to face change of moods in seconds!

Higor Cavalcante Listen to them and take them seriously. They are not children any longer. You’ll have a great time!

Thiago Veigga Only show interest when you are genuinely interested, because they’ll do the same. The thing I miss most about teaching teens are the date stories!

Shelly Sanchez Terrell They love making videos and love music. They’ll test you and pretend they’re bored but eventually they open up and have many opinions. Find ways to get them to express them and refine them.

Bruno Andrade Get into their world. Learn the songs they’re listening to, the games they are playing, the app they are using and incorporate them into your lessons (and conversations) as much as possible! That really helps in terms of rapport.

JoAnn Salvisberg-Smith Make the lesson all about them.

Roseli Serra Just relax , be friendly, but firm, let them think they have you in their hands and you’ll have them easily! And enjoy! They are challenging , but marvellous! They love music and videos, so using songs they love might be a good start.

Steven Herder 1. Don’t let the curriculum or the syllabus dictate your first month of classes. Take as much time as you need to get to know the students, challenging them to get to know each other better.
2. Build a learning community by having them find their roles – as leaders, mood makers, listeners, supporters, organized ones, gritty ones, challengers, enthusiasts, etc.
3. Observe everything and listen to everyone.

Cindy Moss Respect them by getting to know them and value their opinions.

Sue Annan Be firm at first until you get their measure. Then you can relax when you know them better.

Laura Phelps Authenticity and surreal humour. Enjoy!

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Edmilson M Chagas Laugh with them when they get a fit of the giggles for no reason. They often do. Be as playful as you can, but be prepared to draw the line when necessary and make sure they don’t cross it. If they ever do, or whenever you feel they have a problem, try to talk with them in private. Be friendly and understanding. If they don’t want to open up to you, tell them it’s all right and that you’ll be there for them if they change their minds.

Dina Dobrou Become a teen yourself! Try to remember what it was like and be the teacher you’ve always wanted to have yourself!

Michael Harrison Never generalise or treat them as if they are all the same. No two teenagers are the same (no one is). Some will like using gadgets; some will prefer to spend lesson time away from the iPads. Some will love music, sport, video games; others won’t. As long as you treat them as responsible individuals, it should be a blast!

Carlos Gontow Read this book. I wish I had read it when I started teaching!

Victoria Boobyer Be interested in them. Have time for them. My favourite age group by far.

Vassiliki Mandalou Look at them in the eyes, be silent and let them unfold whatever they have inside from statements , questions, doubts, even withdrawal or negativity. I’ve experienced that every time I let them take the first step to talk, they let it come out as we say and freed from the above they are in position to listen to you. Tone of voice is rather important too. Try a low polite but firm speech. Also try keep notes of each one personally, this will really help them find self-esteem.

Shaun Dowling Don’t follow the material.

Cindy Moss Establish a culture where they respect each other. I taught my students a South African phrase “Umtu ngumtu nagabantu” which means “a person is a person because of other people”. It was our golden rule and if a student said something mean to another student, we would look at them and say “Umtu ngumtu nagabantu” to remind them to treat others with respect. Teenagers like secret phrases and enjoyed using this one.

Rob Howard Be yourself. Open yourself up to them. Make a private Facebook group for the class. Make a video of your life and show it. Be honest and true and respect them. Tell them you are there to help them find their own voice. A facilitator. Then, tell them you expect the same and after a few weeks, have them make videos on whatever they choose. Group and regroup them out of their clicks and in a month you’ll have a real learning community. Now watch them grow together.

Guido Europeaantje Prepare half an extra class and be prepared to dump activities that don’t work.

Marcos Raul Mendelson Do not make friends with them. Facilitate their learning. Be enthusiastic and smile from time to time. It is contagious. Tell less, show more. Be happy.

David Dodgson Two things my teen groups respond well to:
1. Metacognition – they have reached an age where they can think about more abstract stuff like learning theories. The quiet ones like the self-reflection/assessment stuff as well.
2. Stories I tell ’em ’bout when I were a lad. They love the fallibility of it all!

Jeffrey Doonan Learn their names quickly and use them often, connect with them as individuals as much as possible. Be yourself, teens sense phonies easily. You, most likely, know better than they what they should learn and what they need to learn. Help them to see and understand these things in a way that they think it is their decision. Have fun with the experience.

Wiktor Kostrzewski Here’s a thing my tango teacher tells me these days, and I find it works for classroom management: everything you do is information. The way you walk, stand, praise, demand – the teens I teach pick it all up much quicker than grown-ups..

Patty Salguero Get back to your memories when you were a teen and try to understand their perspective. They are very creative if you establish the right “rapport” for your group. Never forget they have a need to express themselves as they are very critical and tend to think nobody cares about their opinions. Show you are interested in them since the first moment. They will appreciate your efforts if you plan thinking of them.

Teresa Gomes de Carvalho Sometimes they behave in ways that are hard for us to understand. We usually think it’s about us or our class, but actually, it might have nothing to do with us: it might be about issues they’re facing at school or at home, sometimes a bad hair day, problems with a boyfriend/girlfriend, bad grades, low self esteem. They are too self-conscious and peer pressure is a problem. Another reason is that in monolingual classes they don’t see the point of communicating with each other in another language: it just doesn’t feel natural. Also, don’t expect them to understand English is important for their future, for their careers. They live in the here-and-now. The future is usually too abstract for them, so help them them see that English is important for them now, to understand the world. They are also afraid of being judged by their English. Some will try to impress their friends while others will try to ‘sabotage’ the class so that they don’t have to expose themselves. So many things going on in their lives and still, we think we’re ‘the center of their universes.’

 

Thanks to everyone who commented, it’s much appreciated. If you have some advice of your own you’d like to add, leave a comment below.

Flipped Teacher Training

Webinar 9 Feb 2014 2

If you’re responsible for teacher development in your school, you might sometimes find that it’s a burden to continually try and find ways to come up with new materials and approaches. Given the choice, I’m sure you’d love to invite Jeremy Harmer, Scott Thornbury or Penny Ur to come in and give a talk or do a workshop. However, thanks to the massive availability of talks and webinars online, it is possible for your teachers to be trained by the leaders in our field without the speakers even knowing about it.

I think the best way to use these materials in your training sessions is to use a flipped approach. Instead of watching the talk together, you can ask your trainees to watch it before the training session. They can make some notes of things they want to discuss and questions they have which they can bring to the session for discussion.

This was something I did a few months at my previous school. We watched Hugh Dellar’s webinar for BELTA, Five Golden Rules, on the Lexical Approach and then discussed the implications of his talk in the training session. What this achieved was that rather than being a solely trainer-led session, it was much more equal and discursive and offered an interesting variety to normal sessions. Continue reading

BRELT Webinar

BRELT webinar jamestaylor_dec2015

This Thursday December 10th, I will be doing a webinar for the good people of BRELT. You can find out more about it here on their website but if you don’t speak Portuguese here’s the abstract:

If you’re the kind of teacher who goes to webinars, reads books, goes to conferences and generally tries to keep up to date with what is going on in the world of ELT, it can be difficult to make sense of all of these ideas and opinions. In this talk, I’m going to try and cut through the noise and present my list of overrated and underrated areas in ELT today. You might not agree with all of them, but you’re sure to find it thought-provoking!

The talk is in English and not aimed particularly at Brazilian teachers, so I think it’s suitable for any ELT teacher. To get the link to the talk, you can check the BRELT Facebook page or follow them on Twitter. And to find out what time the webinar is happening in your time zone, click here.

It’s free to join, so I hope I see you on Thursday!

Update: You can now watch the recording of my talk here: